The general rule is that applications outside Canada take less time to process. This is one of the main reasons people decide to apply outland, however, other factors must be considered before making the decision. Every case is different.
Yes, if your partner is already in Canada without legal status, they can be sponsored for permanent residence in most cases. However, some exceptions may apply.
It all depends. Although it is not recommended to travel while you have an application in process in some cases the risk of doing it is very low. Please refer to our article Can I travel outside Canada while applying for permanent residence for more information.